The term globalization and Terrorism has been used by many especially academicians, world leaders and students and it has gained a huge momentum in the twenty first century, however, there have been lots of argument and controversies concerning the relationships between the two and how intertwined they are.
According to Nyang, the term globalization is presently used to denote a trend in world affairs in which several factors and forces impact on the way we view ourselves, our world, societies, our culture, the physical world and the rest of the universe. The term is refers to as the growing interconnectedness of nations and people around the world through trade ,investment ,travel ,popular culture and other forms of interaction . In another words, the term can also be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together. This process is the combination of Technology, Economic, Socio-cultural and political forces. Globalization is said to have started in the west. However, people are still in conflict in regards to determining the exact date of the birth of Globalization. According to kilimster, the word globalization first appeared in the Webster’s English dictionary in 1961, but going back to history the word Globalization was first coined by Roland Robertson. Other historians have also argued that Globalization is rooted far back in the 17th and 18th century during Enlightenment era and also after the second world war, in the enlightenment era it was sparked by the enlightenment in the formation of the European nation state, the development of International Law and International conventions and the enlightenment in the Technology such as the revolution in means of Transportation, communication system and the spread of western enlightenment through journeys of discoveries ,colonization and the industrial revolution. and the interaction with national Economies .After the second world war ,the spread of western modernization through markets, the liberalization of the Economic ,the modernization of politics ,the neo-liberal market plus Democracy almost being accepted by the whole world. Globalization takes different shapes and dimension such as the cultural globalization, political globalization, economic globalization and technological globalization and all these dimension contribute to the growth and survival of globalization.
The cultural sphere of globalization refers to the intensification and expansion of cultural flow across the globe, in another word, it is described as the transmission of ideas, meanings and values around the world in such a way as to extend and intensify social relation and an example of this cultural globalization can be sighted to language, foreign fashion and food. The clothing, styles and food have become a poignant indicators of cross cultural exchanges and as a result of these, it has leads to a high degree of loss of identity. The political sphere of globalization stress on the growth of the worldwide political system both in size and complexity. This include the growth of intergovernmental organization such as the United Nation, European Union, world trade organization, International criminal court and North Atlantic Treaty Organization, non-governmental organization, civil societies organization. The political realm of globalization challenges nationalism which leads to the decline of nation state and loss of national sovereignty. The Economic realm of globalization emphasize on the increasing economic integration and interdependence of national, regional, and local economic across through an intensification of cross-borders movement of goods and services, technology and capital. The technological dimension of globalization is one of the most speed aspect of globalization and it refers to the new communication technology and the information revolution, this include the intensification of communication network through the internet, satellite television, sophisticated software and hardware and emails.
Globalization is a double edge word, it has both positive and negative impact in our societies and globe at large. In this present situation of the global pandemic the positive impacts of globalization are crystal clear and glaring in every corner of the world. As a result of globalization, the world has now become a global village, this because it has removed borders between states to trade, travel and communicate effectively without any constraints. Amidst the unprecedented covid19 pandemic, the existence of globalization has enable educational institutions across the globe to conduct their lectures through online effectively without any atom if constraints. It has also enable someone in turkey to market and sell their products to someone in the Gambia and the vice versa. Culturally, through globalization people from different cultural diversity can meet, interact and get to know each other and appreciate each other’s cultures and tradition. Despite the positive aspect of globalization in the globe, it has also major negative impacts in our societies and the world at large. Globalization has cause major effects on our environment especially in underdeveloped countries like Africa through some toxic factories thereby causing infectious diseases, invasive organism and damage from transnational organizations. Looking at the present limbo of the covid19, it is as a result of globalization that the virus is able to spread across the globe. According to McMichael, globalization has already caused health related changes, and still more changes will occur at an especially rapid rate if numerous parties do not intervene promptly. More specifically the health sector must collaborate with other industries and figure out how to alter the ways in which humans produce and share things and engage in activities that comprise their existence while keeping climate change and its effects in mind.
On the other hand, according to some scholars the history of Terrorism can be trace back to the first century AD such as the Jewish Terrorist organization known as the Sicari Zealots, the attack of Romans and by Hebrew Roman and also Terrorism during the French Revolution of 1789.Recently, Terrorism is considered to be the top security agenda globally and it refers to the creation of fears in the minds of people and Government through savage and inhuman activities .As it is consider to be the biggest security constraints ,Terrorist takes different shapes and types .The state sponsor Terrorism is the type that is use by states to control and manage its populace ,and the Religious Terrorism is the most vicious due to the fanaticism of those who practice it and their willingness to sacrifice themselves for the cause .The Right wing Terrorism aims at combating liberal government and preserving traditional orders ,while the Left wing Terrorism seek to overthrow capitalist Democracies and establish socialist or communist government in their place and the Separatist Terrorism focus on fragmenting countries to establish new states .
The causes of this phenomenon ranges from discrimination against minority group or individuals in the society, ethno-nationalism such as the desire of groups of person in the society to separate from existing government and the formation of their new nations, Religion violence committed in the name of religion or to achieve religious goals, the socio-economic status such as poverty and lack of social status in certain states and political grievances. There have been lots of strategies put in place to combat Terrorism such as the united nation counter strategy of 2006, but the question is, has this been enough to combat and contain the phenomenon as the emergence of new Terrorist is in rise and putting the world in fear.
There have been lots of controversies concerning the interlinks of globalization and Terrorism, some quarters argued that globalization is the cause of Terrorism and while others argued that Terrorism exist before globalization and therefore globalization cannot be a cause. Authors like Lim argues that Terrorism and globalization are not linked. He justifies his argument by sighting example such as the Hindu Tamil, Basques in Spain, the Uighurs in xingiang, Tigers in srilanka and the Hindu nationals in India.Lim emphasize that all these issues of Terrorism in different countries occur because of local issues and not as a result of globalization. The world biggest terror attack on the 11th of September did not happen as a result of globalization. Usama bin ladin, the leader of the Al Qaida did not talk about globalization but rather He talked about the present of the American military force in Saudi Arabia.
According to the united nation secretary general Kofi Anan in 2002, more than one billion people are dwelling in poverty, no enough food to eat, no safe water to drink, no primary schooling or health care for their children and without most basic requirement of human dignity .poverty peddle the forces of envy ,despair and terror .However ,Kofi did not believe that these people are victim of globalization but on his point of view ,their problem is not that they are not included in the global market ,but in most cases they are excluded from it .Some research reveals that Terrorism and globalization have a serious connection .Globalization is a significant threat to terrorism in the current situation ,and terrorism has a negative impact on globalization .On the opposite ,if globalization policies are manage carefully ,then globalization could be one of the effective tools to curb Terrorism .
However, in the twenty first century I will argue that globalization have been the major facilitator or catalyst of Terrorism and has help Terrorist to expand and perform their inhuman activities through mobility, coordination, lethality and proselytism. Prior to globalization terrorists had to limit their communication, but as a result of globalization Terrorist can now have effective communication without any fear and their securities, encryption and identity can now be preserve. Moreover, globalization have also make it easy for terrorist to have access to weapons, resources and the proficiency require to conduct small but more lethal attacks in the globe. Through the widespread advancement of technology, globalization has helped to nurture powerful Terrorist groups such as Al Qaida and numerous other Terrorists squads. The use of sophisticated technology to hijack planes during the 9/11 attack raises an alarm that terrorists can use catastrophic technology such as weapons of mass destruction to conduct their attacks.
In summary, Globalization can be a vehicle for equitable growth, development, the rise in the standard of living to further the participation of developing countries. The accountability towards the issue of developing nations, particularly with developed world, is highly significant in global poverty alleviation and in an equitable globalization. Globalization has spread drastically and terrorism has also become a global phenomenon in the aftermath of 9/11. The debate whether Globalization is the cause of Terrorisms or spread as a result of globalization or because of terrorist groups, which are composed of deprive and exploitative people who are excluded from globalization, is a debate subjected to further thought. Terrorism can be a cause and consequences of itself.
By: Alieu Jawo, Political Science and International Relation, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University
1.Schwarz, Jon. “Lie After Lie: What Colin Powell Knew about Iraq 15 Years Ago and What He Told the U.N .” The Intercept_ 6 February 2018.
2.Seifabadi, Mohsen, S., and Dolatabadi, Ali, Globalization, Crisis of Meaning and Emergence of the Fundamentalist Identity; The Case Study of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) Volgograd: Journal of Globalization Studies, 2017. https://www.sociostudies.org/upload/sociostudies.org/journal/jogs/2017_1/139-155.pdf
4.The Guardian staff and agencies. “Iraq had no WMD – inspectors” The Guardian 6 October 2004. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/oct/06/usa.iraq1
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