Research, predominantly in the field of sciences, is an essential part of the disciple. Needless to say, students should have tolerable mastery in research methods and skills needed to excel in courses required for the concentration. Accurate academic research requires a good deal in terms of rigor, reflection, and justification. Have you ever mused over this question: what does it take for a piece of writing to count as an academic knowledge; what assumptions can you afford to make? Students are habitually challenged with the task of how to write a good academic paper. Understanding a broad range of methods and methodological traditions is undoubtedly a prerequisite for research. This review aims to expedite the development of a broad understanding of research. Both students and researchers will be introduced to the techniques, processes, research design and choices, research ethics, literature review, methodologies, utility and limits of case study research among others. Scholars will also be introduced to the divergence that exists between various research paradigms and methodological traditions. It is expected that students will broaden their understanding on research methods and practices. Students will surely be guided through the wholeness of research. This work covers both qualitative and quantitative methods in science and offers an assessment of the main methodological debates within the discipline. It further provides the necessary tools for effectively designing and researching rigorous research and policy papers. Concurrently, some imperative commonalities exist in the ways and manners in which scholars rationalize evidence to make a robust and intelligible argument.
KEYWORDS: Research methods, qualitative, quantitative, ethics, literature, review, methodology.
Pa Modou Drammeh – Ege University, Turkey,
Ousman Bajinka – School of Medicine, University of the Gambia and
Lucette Simbilyabo – Faculty of Medicine, Protestant University of Congo.